Paper:

# Measurements of Non-Grinding Forces and Power

## Zhongde Shi^{†} and Helmi Attia

National Research Council Canada

5145 Ave. Decelles, Montréal, Québec H3T 2B2, Canada

^{†}Corresponding author

Grinding forces and power are important parameters for evaluating grinding process performance, and they are typically measured in grinding experiments. Forces are typically measured using a load cell or a dynamometer, whereas power is measured using an electrical power sensor to monitor the power of the spindle motor. Direct readings of the measurements include the net grinding force and power components for material removal and non-grinding components such as the impingement of a grinding fluid. Therefore, the net components must be extracted from the direct readings. An approach to extracting the net grinding forces and power is to perform additional spark-out grinding passes with no down feed. The forces and power recorded in a complete spark-out pass are used as the non-grinding components. Subsequently, the net grinding components are obtained by subtracting the non-grinding components from the corresponding totals for actual grinding passes. The approach becomes less accurate when large depths of cut, particularly large depths of cut and short grinding lengths, are involved. A new experimental approach is developed in this study to measure the non-grinding force and power components and to extract the net components. Compared with the existing approach, the new approach is more accurate for grinding with large depths of cut or short grinding lengths. In this approach, two additional grinding passes on an easy-to-grind material, one with and the other without a grinding fluid, are conducted using the same setup and condition as those in the actual test material to measure the forces and power for obtaining the non-grinding components. Subsequently, these non-grinding components are used as the non-grinding components of the actual material and subtracted from the total force and power components of the actual material to obtain the net values. To illustrate the application of the approach, surface grinding experiments are conducted to collect the forces and power. The extracted net power is consistent with the power predicted with the extracted net forces.

*Int. J. Automation Technol.*, Vol.15, No.1, pp. 80-88, 2021.

- [1] S. Malkin, “Grinding Technology: Theory and Applications of Machining with Abrasives,” Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, and John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1989.
- [2] C. Guo, Z. Shi, H. Attia, and D. McIntosh, “Power and wheel wear for grinding of nickel alloys with plated CBN wheels,” CIRP Annals, Vol.56, No.1, pp. 343-346, 2007.
- [3] J. Badger, “Factors affecting wheel collapse in grinding,” CIRP Annals, Vol.58, No.1, pp. 307-310, 2009.
- [4] G. Guo and S. Malkin, “Analytical and experimental investigation of burnout in creep-feed grinding,” CIRP Annals, Vol.43, No.1, pp. 283-286, 1994.
- [5] Q. Liu, X. Chen, Y. Wang, and N. Gindy, “Empirical modeling of grinding force based on multivariate analysis,” J. of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.203, pp. 420-430, 2008.
- [6] J. Tang, J. Du, and Y. Chen, “Modeling and experimental study of grinding forces in surface grinding,” J. of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.209, pp. 2847-2854, 2009.
- [7] Z. Shi, C. Guo, and H. Attia, “Exploration of a new approach for calibrating grinding power model,” Proc. of ASME Int. Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conf., V002T02A008, 2014.
- [8] R. Hecker, S. Liang, and X. Wu, “Grinding force and power modeling on chip thickness analysis,” Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol 33, pp. 449-459, 2007.
- [9] E. R. Marshall and M. C. Shaw, “Forces in dry surface grinding,” Trans. of ASME, Vol.74, pp. 51-59, 1952.
- [10] K. Brach, D. M. Pai, E. Ratterman, and M. C. Shaw, “Grinding forces and energy,” ASME J. of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol.110, No.1, pp. 25-31, 1988.
- [11] C. Li, W. Mao, Y. Hou, and Y. Ding, “Investigation of hydrodynamic pressure in high-speed precision grinding,” Procedia Engineering, Vol.15, pp. 2809-2813, 2011.
- [12] Z. Shi, J. S. Agapiou, and H. Attia, “Assessment of an experimental setup for high speed grinding using vitrified CBN wheels,” Int. J. of Abrasive Technology, Vol.6, No.2, pp. 132-146, 2013.
- [13] Z. M. Ganesan, C. Guo, and S. Malkin, “Measurements of hydrodynamic force in grinding,” Trans. of NAMRI/SME, Vol.23, pp. 103-107, 1995.
- [14] Z. Shi, A. Elfizy, H. Attia, and G. Ouellet, “Grinding of chromium carbide coatings using electroplated diamond wheels,” ASME J. of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol.139, 121014, 2017.
- [15] Z. Shi and H. Attia, “High removal rate grinding of titanium alloys with electroplated CBN wheels,” Int. J. of Abrasive Technology, Vol.6, No.3, pp. 243-255, 2014.
- [16] C. Andrew and T. Howes, “Creep Feed Grinding,” Industrial Press Inc., 1985.
- [17] N. Chiu and S. Malkin, “Computer simulation for creep-feed form grinding,” Trans. of North America Manufacturing Research Institute (NAMRI)/SME, Vol.22, pp. 119-126, 1994.
- [18] Z. Shi, M. Srinivasaraghavan, and H. Attia, “Prediction of grinding force distribution in wheel and workpiece contact zone,” Key Engineering Materials, Vol.389, pp. 1-6, 2009.
- [19] Z. Shi, H. Attia, and M. Srinivasaraghavan, “Experimental investigations of the force distributions in the grinding contact zone,” Int. J. of Machining Science and Technology, Vol.13, pp. 372-384, 2009.
- [20] G. Batchelor, “An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics,” Cambridge University Press, 2012.
- [21] C. Cui and J. A. Webster, “Experimental investigation of coolant jet design for creep feed grinding of gas turbine airfoils,” Proc. the 8th Congress on Gas Turbines in Cogeneration and Utility, Industrial and Independent Power Generation, Portland, Vol.9, pp. 91-96, 1994.
- [22] A. Webster, C. Cui, and R. B. Mindek, “Grinding fluid application system design,” Annals of the CIRP, Vol.44, No.1, pp.333-338, 1995.

This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.